School natural sciences education: history, outcome and perspectives

Authors:

Lisichkin G.V.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: Moscow State University Named After M.V. Lomonosov.

Leenson I.A.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: Moscow State University Named After M.V. Lomonosov.

Summary

Problems of education (mainly of science and math education in secondary school) in the USSR (1950-1991) and in the Russian Federation are reviewed in the context of the State Laws and real results, including exams. It is concluded that in 1970s the level of training take a turn to the worse in comparison with 50s and particularly the gap between secondary and education at university level became much higher. The reason of such situation is discussed in detail.

Keywords:

Secondary school education, science education, level of education.


And what does the law say?..

Authors:

Khmel’kov S. B.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: Associate Head of the Legal Department of the Administration of the All-Russian Trade Union of the Education.

Summary

Associate Head of the Legal Department of the Administration of the All- Russian Trade Union of the Education is answering our readers’ questions.


Science and Industry

Carbonates in the life our planet and in the human society

Authors:

Gogolevskaya N. I.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: The Moscow State Pedagogical University.

Stuneeva Yu. B.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: Secondary School № 528.

Karmanova O. V.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: Secondary School № 292.

Summary

The article describes behavior of carbon inorganic compounds in nature; minerals and rocks, created by carbonates; their using in architecture, sculpture and other fields.

Keywords:

Carbon dioxide, carbonate equilibrium, lime deposits, minerals, rocks, limestone, marble, architecture, sculpture, destruction of buildings.


Methods and Experience Exchange

On the issue of solving the problem of increasing awareness of theknowledge

Authors:

Vasyukova E. U.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: The Moscow Institute of Open Education.

Orzekovsky P. A.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: The Moscow Institute of Open Education.

Summary

In the article the reasons of increasing awareness of theoretical knowledge in the organic chemistry are being discussed and there are examples of them. The formation of personal senses of cognition at the stage of knowledge actualization is being considered as one of the conditions of increasing awareness of knowledge. Methods of how to create the situation of the necessity to study the theory have been viewed, the examples of content of the stages of knowledge actualization at several lessons have been showed.

Keywords:

Awareness of students’ knowledge, the theory of the structure of organicsubstances, the stages of how to realize the knowledge, personal purportsof cognition.


Modular study of theoretical fundamentals of organic chemistry

Authors:

Ivlieva N.A.. Adress: Orenburg Region. Workplace: Klyuchevskaya Secondary School.

Summary

The modular program towards studying theme “Theoretical fundamentals of structure of organic compounds” is offered, which contains specific purposes, which a student will reach, when having the modular program, a list of learning materials, detailed students’ instructions and teacher’s recommendations on their phased study, feedback, control and self-control as learning materials themselves as well, worked through.

Keywords:

A modular study, a theory of the chemical structure of organic compounds.


Sharing the experience of using clusters

Authors:

Pavlishcheva A. Yu.. Adress: Stavropol’. Workplace: Lycée № 35.

Summary

A convenient way of systematization of knowledge on this or that issue while studying chemistry is compiling clusters. Using this method allows to activate students at the initial stage of a lesson and to generalize acquired knowledge in its end. The author considers this method by the example of studying theme “Ethylenes”.

Keywords:

A cluster, graphic presentation of information.


Educational technologies: a case-technology

Authors:

Belyaeva Ye. I.. Adress: Murmansk. Workplace: Polytechnic Lycée.

Summary

A case-technology is an educational technology based on providing information and educational resources in the form of special kits (cases) of educational and methodical materials meant for study, in its printed or computer mode, to students. The description of a lesson of feedback and knowledge systematization on the subject of “Ferrum is a metal of many faces” is given.

Keywords:

A case-technology, active methods of teaching, ferrum, ferrum compounds.


Forming ecological knowledge when studying phosphorus and its copmpounds

Authors:

Fairushina S. M.. Adress: Naberezhnye Chelny. Workplace: Pedagogical Institute.

Summary

The article posits the problem of studying chemical element from the point of view of natural-science disciplines. It offers the original method of studying chemical element of phosphorus applying knowledge of chemistry, biology, geography, physics and ecology. The article gives the definite way of analysis of phosphorus allotropic conditions states and presents their classification. Such method of studying chemical element forms pupils’ ability to use literary works in the courses of natural-science disciplines, to apply knowledge of biology, geography, physics and ecology in the course of studying chemistry.

Keywords:

Ecology-oriented approach of studying phosphorus, questions of studyingchemical elements in the courses of natural-science disciplines, application of the knowledge of biology, geography, physics, chemistry andecology in the course of studying chemical elements.


A game-voyage on the subject of “The types of chemical reactions”

Authors:

Pak Ye. P.. Adress: the town of Balakovo, the Saratov region. Workplace: Secondary School № 12.

Summary

The design of a lesson of knowledge feedback and systematization for students of the 8th Form in the mode of a game-voyage is offered. During that lesson students of the 8th Form take part in several didactic games.

Keywords:

Types of chemical reactions, didactic games, a game-voyage.


On conducting integrated lessons in the 8th Form

Authors:

Yershova V. P.. Adress: the town of Yelizovo, the Kamchatsky territory. Workplace: Secondary School № 9.

Balaganina Ye. A.. Adress: Nizhny Novgorod. Workplace: Secondary School № 126.

Summary

The substantiation of necessity of using the integration of chemistry with other disciplines is given. The authors offer designs of integrated lessons on the subjects of “Signs of chemical reactions” and “Physical phenomena in chemistry”.

Keywords:

Physical and chemical phenomena, signs of chemical reactions, integrativeeducational problems, intersubject links, рroblem situation.


Towards the study of a rate of chemical reaction

Authors:

Voynova T. A.. Adress: the town or Rubtsovsk. Workplace: Lycée “An erudite person”.

Summary

It is important, while at lessons, not only to give fundamentals of knowledge to students, but also to increase a share of their independent activity, to teach them to gain information independently out of textbooks, additional literature, to use material learned as a manual to learn new. As an example to illustrate such an approach the design of a lesson on the subject of “A rate of chemical reaction. Chemical kinetics” is offered.

Keywords:

Independent activity, a rate of chemical reaction.


Graphic schemes in the solutions of the exercises with calculations

Authors:

Turchen D.N.. Adress: Voronezh. Workplace: University.

Summary

The algorithm analysis, used in calculated exercise training is fulfilled. A necessity of the creation of graphic scheme for the particular algorithm of the solution is grounded and given. We cite some examples of these algorithms for the certain tasks.

Keywords:

Algorithm, task, solution.


Consultation

Rate and mechanisms of chemical reactions

Authors:

Medvedev Yu. N.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: The Moscow State Pedagogical University.

Summary

Some tasks, which may be found in school textbooks and books of mathematical problems as in workbooks for universities as well served as a reason to write this article. To show conventionality of tasks of such type it is necessary to make a trip into chemical kinetics, which is a field of chemistry, which studies ways of course, mechanisms and rates of chemical reactions as condition-response relationship as well.

Keywords:

Chemical kinetics, rate of a chemical reaction, mechanism of chemicalreactions, elementary and complex reactions, monomolecular, bimolecular andthree-molecular reactions.


Chemical experiment

Towards the use of a digital laboratory

Authors:

Volkova S. A.. Adress: Kaluga. Workplace: Pedagogical University.

Gusev S. N.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: Secondary School № 340.

Summary

In given article methodical recommendations about studying of a theme solutions with use of digital laboratory are described. In particular the algorithm of carrying out of experiment on studying of thermal effects observed is described at dissolution by means of the temperature gauge.

Keywords:

Chemical experiment, the gauge, a solution, thermal effect.


Post-Curriculum exercises

Developing tasks for internal school Olympiad

Authors:

Martynenko B. V.. Adress: Birsk. Workplace: State Social-Pedagogical Academy.

Mikhalyeva M. V.. Adress: Birsk. Workplace: State Social-Pedagogical Academy.

Summary

The article offers several chemistry tasks, which teachers could use in the course of preparation and conduction of the school round of chemical and ecological Olympiad.

Keywords:

Olympiad (competition), the quantity of atoms, density, mass portion, protons, neutrons, water solutions, volcanic throws.


Consecration into chemists

Authors:

Bul’bas N.A.. Adress: Serpukhovsky District, the Moscow Region. Workplace: Turovskaya Secondary School.

Summary

In the beginning of a school year, when the students of the 8th Form have already got acquainted with some matters and their properties, the author conducts a post-curriculum study “Consecration into chemists”. A scenario of such a holiday is provided.

Keywords:

Consecration into chemists, chemistry.


Some Facts from History of Chemistry

One who has seen an invisible being

Authors:

Izyumov I. A.. Adress: the town of Aksay, the Rostov region. Workplace: Secondary School №3.

Summary

The article narrates about discovery of a neutrino by famous physicist W. Pauli.

Keywords:

Wolfgang ernst pauli, alpha decay, atomic nucleus, alpha rays, beta rays.