School chemistry in the memory of humanitarian students

Authors:

Orlova S. I.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: Lomonosov Moscow State University.

Lisichkin G. V.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: Lomonosov Moscow State University.

Summary

Understanding fundamentals of chemistry is necessary for productive work in almost all spheres of professional practice in the modern world. Therefore, everyone should possess minimal knowledge of chemistry provided by secondary school chemistry course. The authors of the article attempt to identify the main characteristics of remaining knowledge (amount, weight, strength) and the level of remaining knowledge of the students of humanitarian specialties

Keywords:

Remaining knowledge of chemistry, school chemical education, tests, the amount and structure of knowledge.


Consultation

Chemistry without logical gaps. Transformation of energy in chemical reactions

Authors:

Manuilov A. V.. Adress: Novosibirsk. Workplace: Institute of Educational Research of Gifted Children, Russian Academy of Education. Special Educational Scientific Center of Novosibirsk State University.

Summary

The article describes basic concepts of thermochemistry and its place in chemical thermodynamics. The description of exothermic and endothermic processes in the language of thermodynamics which can be easily understood by students is proposed. The causes of spontaneous endothermic processes based on the concepts of enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs energy are discussed.

Keywords:

Thermochemistry, thermal effect, exothermic and endothermic reactions, thermochemical equation, enthalpy, standard enthalpy, enthalpy of formation, entropy, Gibbs energy.


Methods and Experience Exchange

On creating conditions for achieving the FSES requirements

Authors:

Shalashova M. M.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: Institute of additional education of the Moscow City Teacher Training University.

Summary

The transition to state educational standards of new generation poses for a chemistry teacher the task of rethinking current practices, the search for new approaches and tools to achieve the objectives. In this article, the author suggests possible solutions.

Keywords:

Fses requirements, universal learning activities, codificator, tools to achieve planned results.


Methods and Experience Exchange

Prognostication tasks

Authors:

Mirenkova E. V.. Adress: Smolensk. Workplace: Smolensk State University.

Summary

The definition of prognostication exercises is given. The author states that prediction is closely connected with explanation. Laws and cause-effect relationships are pointed out as the fundaments of explanation and prediction. Various prognostication tasks and exercises are suggested for teaching chemistry at school.

Keywords:

Prediction and explanation, prognostication exercises.


Methods and Experience Exchange

On practical experience of teaching the theme “Unsaturated hydrocarbons”

Authors:

Pil'nikova N. N.. Adress: Sankt-Peterburg. Workplace: Secondary school № 496.

Summary

The teaching strategy for a chemistry lesson for 9-graders in accordance with the requirements of Federal state educational standards for General education is presented.

Keywords:

сhemistry lesson, unsaturated hydrocarbons, ethylene.


Methods and Experience Exchange

Using computer programs in teaching organic chemistry

Authors:

Magerramov A. M.. Adress: Baku, Azerbaijan Republic. Workplace: Baku State University.

Azizov A. T.. Adress: Baku, Azerbaijan Republic. Workplace: Baku State University.

Abyshov N. A.. Adress: Baku, Azerbaijan Republic. Workplace: Modern Educational Complex named after Heydar Aliyev.

Masmalyieva L. E.. Adress: Baku, Azerbaijan Republic. Workplace: Lyceum named after Academician Zarif Aliyev.

Summary

This article discusses the general principles of the use of certain computer programs, such as Power Point, ChemDraw Ultra, Chem3D Std in teaching organic chemistry in secondary schools. The use of computer technology in teaching organic chemistry has several advantages to be noted.

Keywords:

The use of computer programs in teaching organic chemistry, Power Point, ChemDraw Ultra, Chem3D Std, the advantages of computer technology in teaching chemistry.


Methods and Experience Exchange

Principles and methods of teaching chemistry in specialized biomedical classes

Authors:

Popkov V. A.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University.

Golovina N. V.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University.

Filippova A. A.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University.

Garnova N. Yu.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University.

Summary

The objectives of specialized programs for biomedical classes are the transition from the general high-school chemistry course to the specialized course, the formation of the fundamental knowledge base for successful passing of the unified national exam, worthy participation in academic competitions and entrance to prestigious universities of the country. Aspects of teaching methods used for achievement of described objectives are discussed in the article. Also, the thematic plan of lectures and seminars for 10 and 11 classes is outlined. Having a long experience in teaching and scientific research, the authors are able to acquaint students with modern methods of research and expand their understanding of the role of chemistry in life beyond school textbooks.

Keywords:

Specialized class, biomedical class, unified national exam, basic level, academic activity, knowledge, system of desk studies and discussion sessions, training of school leavers, examination, education, problems of chemistry, thematic plan, knowledge of chemistry, the basic minimum.


Methods and Experience Exchange

Mathematical Content of Chemical Tasks of Entrance Exams. The Tasks with Quadratic Equations

Authors:

Kuz’menko N. E.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: Lomonosov Moscow State University.

Ryzhova O. N.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: Lomonosov Moscow State University.

Belevtsova E. A.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: Lomonosov Moscow State University.

Summary

The paper is devoted to the chemical tasks with quadratic equations, offered to applicants at Chemistry Olympiads (such as "Lomonosov" and "Conquer the Vorobyovy Gory!") and written entrance exams at MSU. To this purpose, all the tasks were analyzed from 1990 to the present. The examples of tasks with quadratic equations and their solutions are presented. It is shown that most of these problems are related to the equilibrium, namely the problems on the chemical equilibrium, electrolytic dissociation and solubility product, which traditionally cause difficulties for school students and applicants. It is shown that solution of quadratic equations is the necessary mathematical skill in solving Olympiad problems and competitive tasks at written entrance exams on chemistry.

Keywords:

Written entrance examination on chemistry, Chemistry оlympiad, mathematical content of chemical problems.


Methods and Experience Exchange

Lesson on “Elemental non-metals”

Authors:

Dyomina V. F.. Adress: Novoshakhtinsk, Rostov region. Workplace: Secondary school № 31.

Summary

The scenario for a lesson of acquiring new knowledge for 8-graders is suggested. It implies pair work with the use of various sources of information. Elements of technological approach to teaching chemistry and developing critical thinking are taken into account.

Keywords:

Elemental substances, non-metals, independent work, group work.


Methods and Experience Exchange

On teaching chemistry of halogens

Authors:

Schukina T. V.. Adress: Kazan. Workplace: Liceum № 116.

Summary

The lesson includes pair work, cross checking in a group, team work, carrying out projects and their presentation.

Keywords:

Halogens, lesson structure, work in group, work in pairs, project activity.


Chemical experiment

The educational technology design for the lesson on «Salts, their analysis, and biological role»

Authors:

Andrianicheva T. V.. Adress: Nizhniy Novgorod. Workplace: The Institute of Food Technologies and Design - a branch of State Educational Government-Financed Institution of Higher Professional Education Nizhny Novgorod State Institute of Engineering and Economics.

Summary

The article is concerned with the educational technology for the lesson on «Salts, their analysis, and biological role». Its realization in teaching activities stimulates student cognitive work, including mastering experimental techniques, forming skills of cation and anion identification in a salt solution, and awareness of the biological role of chemical elements in human life, the importance of nutrition in health maintenance.

Keywords:

Educational technology, cation, anion, salt, minerals and trace elements, group and individual reagents.


Chemical experiment

Research work "Determination of cottage cheese quality"

Authors:

Shiryaeva M. Yu.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: Secondary school № 1413.

Summary

A few years ago a new "Digital lab "Archimedes" was installed in our school. This equipment has expanded opportunities for student experiment and opened new horizons for extracurricular activities. But we see the greatest prospects in the organization of project research activities. In project and research work "Determination of cottage cheese quality" digital lab "Archimedes" is used to determine pH changes during the titration.

Keywords:

Digital laboratory "archimedes", project and research activities, student experiment, titration.


Chemical experiment

Litmus, close and inaccessible

Authors:

Radetskiy A. M.. Adress: Simferopol. Workplace: Secondary school № 18.

Shul'skaya G. P.. Adress: Simferopol. Workplace: Secondary school № 18.

Summary

Litmus is one of the first and most widely known acid-base indicators. In practice Several preparative forms of litmus, namely water solution and the strips of filter paper impregnated with litmus, so-called litmus paper, are used in the lab.

Keywords:

Litmus, litmus paper, indicator.


Chemical experiment

Using litmus in school experiment

Authors:

Bespalov P. I.. Adress: Moscow. Workplace: Moscow Institute of Open Education.

Summary

Lack of litmus at school is connected with the fact that production of litmus from natural raw materials (lichens) is rather expensive, therefore it is not industrially produced. In addition, preparation of qualitative solution of litmus is a time-consuming process.

Keywords:

Chemicals, litmus, lacmoid.


Some Facts from History of Chemistry

The Great Patriotic War through the eyes of witnesses

Authors:

Avdeev Ya. G.. Adress: Kaluga. Workplace: K.E.Tsiolokovsky Kaluga State University.

Tyurina M. V.. Adress: Kaluga. Workplace: K.E.Tsiolokovsky Kaluga State University.

Summary

The article describes the work of chemical science and industry in the USSR during the Great Patriotic War. The main directions of their activities during this period are considered. The article presents the memoirs of participants and witnesses of those events.

Keywords:

The great patriotic war, chemical industry, the State Defense Committee.


Post-Curriculum exercises

Investigating ecological state of a water reservoir

Authors:

Shal'nev N. A.. Adress: Ekaterinburg. Workplace: School of the оlympic reserve, Secondary school № 95.

Summary

In this article the author discusses an ecological project which is dedicated to the Upper Iset pond. The students examined the ecological state of the pond. The process and the results achieved are described.

Keywords:

рond, ecology, water, indicators, water sample, smell, color.